Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD

Written to the Persian Shah by the Pope in 1612 A.D

"Those in particular who are called Assyrians or Jacobites and inhabit Isfahan will be compelled to sell their very children in order to pay the heavy tax you have imposed on them, unless You take pity on their misfortune"

(H. Chick, ed. and trans., A Chronicle of the Carmelites in Persia, 2 vols., London 1939, s. 100)
SyriacOrthodoxAssyrian said:
Most history is never set in stone.
Stop insulting them if you come with sarcastic remarks yourself.

umm yes it is, literally its carved in stone.
Buy this and read it.


and regarding 2nd comment its pretty hard not to tease people who burn and piss on the Assyrian flag, who steal Janan Sawa?s song turn it into a stupid suroye chant, who take the Assyrian symbol put it on their flag and just change the head into a flame. I don?t know about you but I?m not a monk.

Now whats this topic about? Assyria after the fall or the bloody name issue again.
I have the book. Don't worry. I wasn't specifically talking about the "name issue" when I wrote that most history is never set in stone.

A few Syrianska punk kids burned the Assyriska FF emblem, not the Assyrian flag, and they got a lot of crap from other Syrianska fans for doing so. And it wasn't Syrianska fans standing at the opposite teams side with their flag during the play-off a few years ago, it was fans of the opposite team.

I guess generalizing is the most natural thing in the world.

Their flag isn't exactly the Assyrian symbol (if you mean the Ashur one) but it's a winged sun (there were a lof of winged suns back then, not just the Ashur one) with Gilgamesh as one of three figures below it though. It was found in Kapara. I believe they found the same symbol with another figure below it somewhere in present-day Syria later.

When did I turn the thread into the name issue? The name issue is where/how/what does suroyo/suryoyo come from, not "archeology"/"cartology".

Was the Bel and Nebo gods thing really further proof that we're Assyrians?

Am I wrong for pointing out that something might be wrong? I might be wrong saying something's wrong as well, so come and let's discuss. There's no need for the holier-than-thou "we've been through this a million times before :rollseyes: :facepalm:" replies. This isn't the politics forum.
Theophanes Continuatus:

Leo V the Armenian.  Emperor of Byzantium from 813 to 820.  According to the Theophanes Continuatus*, he was of mixed heritage.  Part Armenian, part Assyrian.


Theophanes Continuatus (Greek: συνεχισταί Θεοφάνους) or Scriptores post Theophanem (Οἱ μετὰ Θεοφάνην, "those after Theophanes") is the Latin name commonly applied to a collection of historical writings preserved in the 11th-century Vat. gr. 167 manuscript.[1] Its name derives from its role as the continuation, covering the years 813?961, of the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor, which reaches from 285 to 813. The manuscript consists of four distinct works, in style and form very unlike the annalistic approach of Theophanes.[2]
The first work, of four books consists of a series of biographies on the emperors reigning from 813 to 867 (from Leo the Armenian to Michael III). As they were commissioned by Emperor Constantine VII (r. 913?959), they reflect the point of view of the reigning Macedonian dynasty. The unknown author probably used the same sources as Genesios.[2] The second work is known as the Vita Basilii (Latin for "Life of Basil"), a biography of Basil I the Macedonian (r. 867?886) written by his grandson Constantine VII probably around 950. The work is essentially a panegyric, praising Basil and his reign while vilifying his predecessor, Michael III.[3] The third work is a history of the years 886?948, in form and content very close to the history of Symeon Logothetes, and the final section continues it until 961. It was probably written by Theodore Daphnopates, shortly before 963.[4]
In his account of the revolt of Thomas the Slavonian (820-823) against the Emperor Michael II (820-829), the Byzantine historian Genesius* lists a variety of peoples from whom the armies of the rebel had been drawn: Saracens, Indians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Medes, Abasgians, Zichs, Vandals, Getae, Alans, Chaldoi, Armenians, adherents of the heretical sects of the Paulicians and the Athinganoi.

The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire

*Wikipedia: Joseph Genesius
Genesius (Greek: Γενἐσιος, Genesios) is the conventional name given to the anonymous Greek author of the tenth century chronicle, On the reign of the emperors. His first name is sometimes given as Joseph, combining him with a "Joseph Genesius" quoted in the preamble to John Skylitzes.

The Birth of The Armenian Nation
Brief Survey and Chronological Information

The third [Armenian origin] theory is legendary and belongs to the great Armenian poet and historian Movses Khorenatzi*. According to Khorenatzi there was a famous Assyrian scientist Mar Appar Gadina, who was assigned by the Armenian King Vagharshak to go to Persia and to find out Armenian History. Gadina went to Persia, where in the Kings library he discovered the " History of the First Ancestors". That study, according to Khorenatzi was in Greek and Mar Appas Gadina translated into Assyrian. But we do not have neither Greek nor Assyrian versions of that book. In this "Book" Khorenatzi sees and develops Haig's legend and states that our country is called Hayastan and because of Haig, Armenians are called Hays. The Bible says Haig was the grandson of Japhet, son of Noah.
Moses of Chorene, also Moses of Khoren, Moses Chorenensis, or Movses Khorenatsi (Armenian: Մովսես Խորենացի, Armenian pronunciation: [mofˈsɛs χoɾɛnɑˈtsʰi], also written Movsēs Xorenac?i, Movses Khorenats'i, scholars have argued for either fifth century (ca. 410 ? 490s AD), or a 7th to 9th century date) was an Armenian historian, and author of the History of Armenia.
Les conciles g?n?raux et particuliers , Volume 1 , year: 1868

"The seats of the Metropolitan were scattered throughout Asia, the Caspian Sea to China, the northern borders of Scythia to the southern tip of the peninsula indienne.Aparlirduxv century we find little more than the Kurdistan Nestorian Assyrians. The seat of the patriarchate, since 1333, was Mosul, where they tranf?r?rent for safety in an inaccessible valley in Dschulamerick, near the river Zab, between Turkey cl Persia. Those who inhabited the plains were almost all converted to Catholicism: there is little today that Nestorians in the mountains."


The Thirteen Assyrian Fathers (Georgian: ათცამმეტი ასურელი მამანი, atsamet'i asureli mamani) were, according to Georgian church tradition, a group of monastic missionaries who arrived from Mesopotamia to Georgia to strengthen Christianity in the country in the 6th century. They are credited by the Georgian church historians with the foundation of several monasteries and hermitages and initiation of the ascetic movement in Georgia.

ასურელი - Asureli - From Assur, the original capital city of Assyria


Modern scholarly opinion is divided as to whether they were Syrians or Syrian-educated Georgians, whether missionaries or refugees ? monophysite or diophysite ? from Syria, from which monophysitism had retreated while Georgia was still primarily monophysite at that time.

Looking at their names I would think they were Georgian (if those were their real names).
[A]ssyrian traditions, and Assyrian religion persisted alongside Christianity in all its major cities until late Antiquity.
TABLE III. [Some] Assyrian theophoric personal names from Parthian Assur, Hatra and Ţūr-Abdīn. Beyer 1998

Name Year/AD (where known)
Garam-Allāt 235
Ahī-Assur 221
Assur-dayyān 200
Assur-?ama` 184
Assur-`a 221
Assur-natan 184
Assur-tariş 200
`Aqīb-Assur 220
Re'ūt-Assur 112
Assur-Bēl-dayyān 222
Bēl-abī 192
Bēl-`aqab 97
Malā-Bēl 221
Sattar-Bēl 195
`Awīd-I??ār 141
Ba-Nab?-ehdet 112
Nab?-dayyān 188
Nab?-kātōb 235
`Abed-Nab? 195
Bar-Nanāya 195
Bar-Nērgol 108
Nērgol-dammar 195
`Abed-?almā(n) 235
`Aqab-?ame? 217
Natūn-?ame? 195
?ame?-`aqab 205
?ame?-barak 237
?ame?-yāb 162
?ame?-zabad 128
Ba-Serū 217

Simo Parpola, Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today
"The Ramessides, Medes, and Persians"
Emmet Sweeney

Pliny the Elder (c. AD 70), while utilizing the work of Strabo, already prefers the name Assyria for the Empire. His contemporary Flavius Josephus likewise consistently refers to the Empire as Assyria, and uses Syria in referring to the Seleucid Empire and the Roman province of Syria. This terminology anticipates the situation after the reign of Trajan, who after his campaign against the Parthians (AD 116) created a province called Assyria in the east, probably annexing the semi-independent state of Adiabene which the Assyrians had succeeded in establishing in their ancient homeland.

15 - 116 AD
Adiabene and Osrhoene


Followed by
The extent of the Roman Empire, under Trajan.
Roman Provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria


Chaldean Catholics and "Nestorians" telling different versions of the same children's story.



The texts presented here are four different versions of a children?s story passed down the generations orally. The versions vary not only in the actual story, but also in the dialect in which they are recounted, all of which are members of the North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic family (henceforth NENA). It is hoped that the comparison of different versions of one story will give some idea of the variation that oral folktales undergo, and will also facilitate a comparison of the narrative devices used in different dialects.

All versions come from Christian communities in the NENA area. The first two versions are told respectively in the dialects of the villages of Alqosh and Telkepe situated in the Mosul Plain in northern Iraq. The third version is told in the dialect of Hamziye, a village in the apna region further north. These versions were recorded by the author during face to-face interviews with the narrators. The fourth version was recorded in a telephone interview with a lady who was born in the small village of Tazakand south of Urmia in Iran. Her dialect is related to, but distinct from, standard Christian Urmia.


The dialects of these four versions are quite diverse. Alqosh and Telkepe are relatively closely related dialects, yet there are still quite obvious differences between the two. Hamziye is a little further removed, both geographically and linguistically, while the dialect of the Tazakand version is quite distinct from all the others. There is not space here to go into the many grammatical differences between the four dialects. Of more relevance is the variation in some of the lexical items playing an important role in the story, as in shown in the table below. The dialects are ordered geographically, from south to north. Note that words in {} brackets are not actually found in the text but are sourced from other fieldwork and added for completeness.

Eleanor Coghill, University of Cambridge

There was a "?" in the box, under the Tazakand (Iran) column, for "yoghurt." Assuming it is the same, I added "masta," as that is the word for yogurt in the Urmia dialect (a dialect related to Tazakand). 


A bit from the "Reports of the Immigration Commission (1911) - United States. Immigration Commission (1907-1910)"


Some of them on coming to the United States as immigrants insist that they are not Syrians, but Assyrians. It is believed that they are more properly to be considered as East Syrians...

[A]lthough so good an authority as Deniker holds that they belong to an entirely distinct race, which he calls the "Assyroid." In any case, they belong to the Syrian stock (Semites) linguistically.

This is the "Deniker" they are referring to.  From Wiki: "Joseph Deniker (March 6, 1852, Astrakhan ? March 18, 1918, Paris) was a Russian-born French naturalist and anthropologist, known primarily for his attempts to develop highly-detailed maps of race in Europe."

One hundred years later, and we are still fighting the same fight.  Thankfully, genetic testing, a better understanding of our vernacular, archaeological discoveries, and other factors are helping to turn the tide in our favor in some realms.  I think John J. Nimrod would be happy with the progress.  The below bits are taken from a J.J. Goldberg article from a decade ago, "Outcasts in Iraq, Assyrians look longingly at the Jewish homeland."

"The trouble is, they consider us a religion, not an ethnic group," said former Illinois state senator John Nimrod, president of the Assyrian Universal Alliance, an umbrella for rival Assyrian groups. "What we're trying to do is tell the world who we are. We've been trying for years. But nobody notices."
Hippolitus: (170 ? 235 AD)

Hippolytus of Rome was the most important third-century theologian in the developing orthodox church in Rome, where he was probably born. He is described as a disciple of Irenaeus. He came into conflict with the popes of his time and seems to have headed a schismatic group as a rival bishop of Rome.

Hippolitus: Refutation of All Heresies


The principal heresy of Marcion, and (the one of his) which is most free from admixture (with other heresies), is that which has its system formed out of the theory concerning the good and bad (God). Now this, it has been manifested by us, belongs to Empedocles. But since at present, in our times, a certain follower of Marcion, (namely) Prepon, an Assyrian, has endeavoured to introduce something more novel, and has given an account of his heresy in a work inscribed to Bardesanes, an Armenian, neither of this will I be silent. In alleging that what is just constitutes a third principle, and that it is placed intermediate between what is good and bad, Prepon of course is not able to avoid (the imputation of inculcating) the opinion of Empedocles.
On both Assyrians and Chaldeans.  The clip, at the bottom of the post, is a Mandaean priest saying a few words about their faith.  Whether it is related to what is written below is open to debate.  Mandaeans, before becoming what is now a largely Arabic-speaking community, spoke a Babylonian-Aramaic dialect as a vernacular.  Their particular dialect of Aramaic, Mandaic, has many loanwords from Akkadian.  A great deal of those loans are specific to the religion of our forefathers.  See the paragraph, farthest below, for a list of some Akkadian loanwords in Mandaic.*

Hippolitus: (170 ? 235 AD)

Hippolitus: Refutation of All Heresies


"Now earth," say the Greeks, "gave forth a man, (earth) first bearing a goodly gift, wishing to become mother not of plants devoid of sense, nor beasts without reason, but of a gentle and highly favoured creature." "It, however, is difficult," (the Naassene) says, "to ascertain whether Alalcomeneus, first of men, rose upon the Boeotians over Lake Cephisus; or whether it were the Idaean Curetes, a divine race; or the Phrygian Corybantes, whom first the sun beheld springing up after the manner of the growth of trees; or whether Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon; or Eleusis (produced) Diaulus, an inhabitant of Raria; or Lemnus begot Cabirus, fair child of secret orgies; or Pallerie (brought forth) the Phlegraean Alcyoneus, oldest of the giants. But the Libyans affirm that Iarbas, first born, on emerging from arid plains, commenced eating the sweet acorn of Jupiter. But the Nile of the Egyptians," he says, "up to this day fertilizing mud, (and therefore) generating animals, renders up living bodies, which acquire flesh from moist vapour." The Assyrians, however, say that fish-eating Oannes was (the first man, and) produced among themselves. The Chaldeans, however, say that this Adam is the man whom alone earth brought forth. And that he lay inanimate, unmoved, (and) still as a statue; being an image of him who is above, who is celebrated as the man Adam, having been begotten by many powers, concerning whom individually is an enlarged discussion.

In order, therefore, that finally the Great Man from above may be overpowered, "from whom," as they say, "the whole family named on earth and in the heavens has been formed, to him was given also a soul, that through the soul he might suffer; and that the enslaved image may be punished of the Great and most Glorious and Perfect Man, for even so they call him. Again, then, they ask what is the soul, and whence, and what kind in its nature, that, coming to the man and moving him, it should enslave and punish the image of the Perfect Man. They do not, however, (on this point) institute an inquiry from the Scriptures, but ask this (question) also from the mystic (rites). And they affirm that the soul is very difficult to discover, and hard to understand; for it does not remain in the same figure or the same form invariably, or in one passive condition, that either one could express it by a sign, or comprehend it substantially.

But they have these varied changes (of the soul) set down in the gospel inscribed "according to the Egyptians." They are, then, in doubt, as all the rest of men among the Gentiles, whether (the soul) is at all from something pre-existent, or whether from the self-produced (one), or from a widespread Chaos. And first they fly for refuge to the mysteries of the Assyrians, perceiving the threefold division of the man; for the Assyrians first advanced the opinion that the soul has three parts, and yet (is essentially) one. For of soul, say they, is every nature desirous, and each in a different manner. For soul is cause of all things made; all things that are nourished, (the Naassene) says, and that grow, require soul. For it is not possible, he says, to obtain any nourishment or growth where soul is not present. For even stones, he affirms, are animated, for they possess what is capable of increase; but increase would not at any time take place without nourishment, for it is by accession that things which are being increased grow, but accession is the nourishment of things that are nurtured. Every nature, then, as of thins celestial and (the Naasene) says, of things celestial, and earthly, and infernal, desires a soul. And an entity of this description the Assyrians call Adonis or Endymion; and when it is styled Adonis, Venus, he says, loves and desires the soul when styled by such a name.


In the area of loanwords, Mandaic inherited from Akkadian an abundance of termini technici concerning religion, but also many words in other areas. Despite the limitation in its attested lexicon, due to the loss of texts, Mandaic shows more Akkadian borrowings than any other Aramaic dialect. The Mandaean gnostic sect recruited from a Babylonian population, and a stock of Akkadian words had belonged to the idiom of that geographical area for some centuries. Particular borrowings in Mandaic are: priest classes, cult, divination, and magic terms: brʾyʾ < bartū ?diviner,? zʾbʾ 2 ?esoteric priests,? gynyʾ ?sacrifice,? ʿkwrʾ < ekurru ?temple,? prykʾ < parakku ?altar, shrine,? py?rʾ < pi?ru ?dissolving of a magic bond,? ʾ?p < a?āpu ?to bewitch,? ?ʾptʾ < ?iptu ?incantation?; terms concerning the gnostic doctrine and cult: gynyʾ < gin? ?sanctuaries,? zywʾ < zīmu ?brilliance,? nʾndbyʾ < nindab? ?offering,? nʾṣwrʾyʾ ?watcher of secrets,? nʾṣyrwtʾ ?secrecy? < niṣirtu; architectional terms: ʾngrʾ < agāru ?wall,?roof,? k?wrʾ < gu?ūru ?beam, post?; body parts: gysʾ 2 ?side?; ktʾ < qātu ?hand, handle,? ?ʾyryʾnʾ < ?vein, artery?; directions of the wind, name of winds, astronomical terms: ?ʾrʾ <?ārū ?direction of the wind,? stʾnʾ < i?tānu north(wind), ywniʾ 2 <ūmu 3 ?storm,? tʾlyʾ < attala ?eclipse.?

Dr. Christa M?ller-Kessler

Originally Published: July 20, 2009

Acts of Sharbel:
The whole city (Edessa) was assembled together near the great altar which is in the middle of the city opposite the office of records, all the gods having been brought together, and then been decorated, and set up in honour, both Nebo and Bel together with their companions. And all the high priests were offering sweet incense and libations, and the odour of the sacrifices was diffusing itself, and sheep and oxen were being slaughtered, and the voice of the harp and the tabor was heard in the whole of the city.
Millar 1993, 487 Millar, Fergus. The Roman Near East 31 BC - AD 337. Cambridge MA, London: Harvard University Press 1993.

Doctrina Addai 32:
[After the Christian missionaire Addai performed several miraculous healings in Edessa,] Shavida and Abednebo, chiefs of the priests of this city, with Piroz and Danqu, their companions, when they saw the signs which he did, ran and threw down the altars upon which they sacrificed before Nebo and Bel, their gods, except the great altar, which was in the midst of the city.
Doctrina Addai 32

Drijvers 1980, 34 Drijvers, Han J. W. Cults and Beliefs at Edessa. ?tudes Pr?liminaires aux Religions Orientales dans l'Empire Romain 82. Leiden: E. J. Brill 1980.

Doctrina Addai:
And those who became his disciples (in Edessa) received from him the Hand of Priesthood, and in their country of the Assyrians they taught the sons of their own people, and built houses of prayer there secretly, through danger of the fire worshippers and the adorers of water. And Narses the King of the Assyrians, when he heard of the things which the Apostle Addaeus did ?

To Simon (was given for the missionary task) Rome, and to John fell Ephesus; to Thomas India, and to Addaeus the country of the Assyrians ?
Doctrina Addai

Cureton 1864, 16, 122 Cureton, William. Ancient Syriac Documents. London: Williams and Norgate 1864 (reprint: Amsterdam: Oriental Press 1971).

Jacob of Serugh, The Fall of the Idols 11.51-54, 11.59-62:
He (= Satan) put Apollo as idol in Antioch and others with him, in Edessa he set Nebo and Bel together with many others, he led astray Harran by Sin, Baˁal?am?n and Bar Nemr? by my Lord with his Dogs and the goddesses Tarˁatha and Gadlat. ? Mabbug made he a city of the priests of the goddess(es), and called it with his name in order that it would err forever (going after its idols). And sister of Harran, which is also devoted to the offerings; and in their error both of them love the springs.
Jacob of Serugh, The Fall of the Idols 11.51-54
Jacob of Serugh, The Fall of the Idols 11.59-62

Drijvers 1980, 38, 97 Drijvers, Han J. W. Cults and Beliefs at Edessa. ?tudes Pr?liminaires aux Religions Orientales dans l'Empire Romain 82. Leiden: E. J. Brill 1980.

The Melammu Project
The Intellectual Heritage of Assyria and Babylonia in East and West​

Off topic but can we say that Mandeans are true Babylonians/Chaldeans ?
Shahin said:
Off topic but can we say that Mandeans are true Babylonians/Chaldeans ?

Tough question, ahuni.  This is all preliminary, but, what does appear possible, based on their former Babylonian-Aramaic vernacular, their traditions, and the very few who have DNA tested, is an association with Babylonian territories extending many centuries into the past.  

It is about putting the pieces together.  See, for example, this work, by a Mandaean scholar, on their ancient script:

"Iranian Scripts for Aramaic Languages: The Origin of the Mandaic Script"
Published in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 341 (2006): 21?30 (Boston)
by Charles G. Haeberl
Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Harvard University

After comparison with the other Aramaic scripts of the Parthian Empire, we can only come to the conclusion that the Parthian chancery script influenced and perhaps even gave rise to new scripts for formerly unwritten Aramaic languages such as Elymaic, Characenean, and Mandaic. If, as the evidence suggests, these three scripts derived from the Parthian chancery script, and their adoption followed the Arsacids' gradual abandonment of Hellenism from 53 C.E. onward, then the Mandaeans must have adopted their script at some point during the latter half of the period of Arsacid rule, and more specifically between the second half of the first century and the end of the second century, the terminus ante quem for the composition of Mandaic texts given by the colophons. While the written literature of the Mandaeans continued to grow during the Sassanian era and even into the Islamic period, its origins should be sought within the Arsacid era.
Thanks for the answer.

The conclusions of the several chapters are resumed in the Epilogue, where W. also suggests that the revival of the cult of Mar Qardagh at Alqo? after the First World War should be connected with the continuing tendency in the Church of the East (and to a lesser extent among Syrian Christians generally) to bolster the identity of a small ethnic group by reference to the past glories of the Assyrian Empire (p. 285). Already in the fourteenth century Rabban Saliba of Hah, the Syrian Orthodox compiler of the calendar cited in my last paragraph (Calendar of Tur ?Abdin), highlighted this ?nationalistic? association in his brief entry: ?Mar Qardagh of the genso/gensā of Sennacherib, who was crowned on a Friday.? The Syriac word gensā can mean family or nation; this recalls ?3 of the legend, where we read (in W.?s translation, p. 20): ?Now holy Mar Qardagh was from a great people (gensā) from the stock of the kingdom of the Assyrians (?tōrāyē). His father was descended from the renowned lineage of the house of Nimrod, and his mother from the renowned lineage of the house of Sennacherib.?
Hugoye Vol. 10, No. 1 Winter 2007
Melammu Project ( )

5th century CE
Roman Empire
Roman philosophers and scholars

The deity in question is very likely Nebo, worshipped as Apollo. A statue which fully answers to Macrobius? description was found in the excavations of Hatra, where an inscription called the deity A??ur-Bel or I??ar-Bel.

Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.17.66-70:
The inhabitants of Hierapolis, who are Assyrians by race, embody all the activities and powers of the sun in the form of a single, bearded statue which they call Apollo. Its face is represented with a long pointed beard; the statue has a tall basket on its head and it is protected by a breastplate; the right hand holds upright a spear on which is a little figure of Victory; the left hand offers the likeness of a flower; and a gorgon-like cloak with a fringe of serpents hangs from the top of the shoulders and covers the back. By the side of the statue are representations of eagles in flight. Before its feet is an image of a woman, with female figures on her right and left encircled by the sinuous coils of a serpent. The downward-pointing beard represents the rays which shoot from above to the earth. The golden basket rising high above the head denotes the height of heaven, whence the essence of the sun is believed to come. By the evidence of the spear and breastplate a representation of Mars is added, and Mars (as I shall go on to explain) is to be identified with the sun. The figure of Victory bears witness to the universal sovereignty of the sun. The likeness of a flower represents the flowering of all that the god sows and engenders and fosters, nourishes and ripens. The likeness of a woman is a representation of the earth, to which the sun gives light from above; and in like manner the two female figures on each side represent matter and nature, which together serve the earth. The representation of a serpent points to the serpentine course of the sun. The eagles, by the great speed and height of their flight, indicate the great height of the sun. The statue has also a gorgonlike vesture, because Minerva, to whom we know this vesture belongs, is a power of the sun; for we have it on the testimony of Porphyrius that Minerva is the power of the sun which gives a right judgement to the minds of men, and that is why this goddess is said to have been born from the head of Jupiter, or, in other words, to have issued from the highest part of the heavens, whence the sun derives its origin.,29.125898&z=11&t=M&marker0=37.925086,29.125898,Hierapolis
The History of the Life and Death of the Holy Teacher Mesrop, by Koriwn, is a quite brief biography of the spiritual leader and inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Mesrop lived from 361 to 440 A.D. Little is known of Koriwn, the biographer, or the date of the biography, but it surely was written after 440, and before 460, the year of the death of Koriwn. It is perhaps the earliest original writing in Classical Armenian. This reading is taken from Books V and VI.

Ew aynps trtmakan hogovk' pashareal ew t'akardapateal ew ankeal i tsup's xorhrdots', et' orpisi ardek' els irats'n gtanits' : Ew ibrew awurs bazums andn i nmin degerr, yaruts'eal aynuhetew hasanr arr surb Kat'ol'ikos Hayots' metsats', oroy anunn chanach'r Sahak, zor patrastakan gtanr, nmin p'ut'oy hawaneal : Ew miangamayn yzharut'eamb gumareal handerdz al't'iwk' metsovk' arr Astuats kanxin, vasn amenayn ogwots' k'ristosaber p'rkut'eann hasaneloy. ew zayn arrnin awurs bazums : Apa elanr nots'a pargewakan yamenabarin Astutsoy zhol'ovel zashxarhahog xorhurdn eraneli miabanelots'n, ew girs nshanagroy Hayastan azgin hasanel. bazum harts' p'ordzi ew k'nnut'ean zandzins parapets'uts'eal, ew bazum ashxatut'eants' hambereal, azd arrnin apa ew zkanxagoyn xndrelin iwreants' t'agaworin Hayots', oroy anun koch'r Vrramshapuh : Yaynzham patmr nots'a ark'ayn, vasn arrn urumn asorwoy episkoposi aznuakani` Danil anun koch'ets'eloy, oroy yankarts uremn nshanagirs al'p'abetats' hayern lezui : Ew ibrew patmets'aw nots'a yark'ay vasn greloyn i Danil, yzharets'in zark'ay` p'oyt' arrnel vasn pitoyits'n aynots'ik : Ew na arrak'r zomn Vahrich anun hrovartakk' arr ayr mi erts', oroy anun Habl koch'in. or r merdzawor Danili asorwoy episkoposi

And thus he was caught and surrounded by vile spirits and fell into torrents of thoughts about what sort of escape he might find from those affairs. And when he had spent many days there upon this, he rose up and forthwith approached the holy Catholicos of greater Armenia, whose name was known as Sahak, whom he found willing, having acceded to this concern. And thus inclined, assembled together, they rose up with powerful prayers to God for obtaining Christ-borne salvation for all the souls; and they continued to do this for many days. Then it occurred to them, granted by benevolent God, to collect the patriotic counsel of the blessed monks and to obtain letters of the alphabet for the Armenian people; having devoted themselves to a great examination of experiment and investigation, and having endured great labors, they then made an announcement of their own searching to the king of the Armenians, whose name was called Vramshapuh. Then the king told them about a certain man called Daniel by name, an Assyrian bishop of noble origin, who had elsewhere devised letters of the alphabet for the Armenian language. And when this was related to them by the king about the writing from Daniel, they prompted the king to take care according to their needs. And by decree he sent someone, Vahrich by name, to an elderly man whose name they called Habel, who was an acquaintance of the Assyrian bishop Daniel.

Armenian Sants

(-350 AD)

Daniel, Bishop (348 A.D,)

Bishop Daniel was elevated to the Catholical Throne after the martyrdom of Catholicos Hoosig. Although he was an Assyrian by birth, Daniel had spent many years in Armenia, first as a student of St. Gregory and later helping in the conversion of pagans. When he became Catholicos, he condemned Prince Diran for the martyrdom of his predecessor and for his desire to remove the line of Gregory from the Catholicate. Prince Diran had him strangled in 348 AD only one year after Catholicos Hoosig's martyrdom.

Project / Collection: Iraq Heritage Program Description: Overview of the Global Heritage Fund's conservation work in Iraq


Calah (modern names: Tell Nimrud) is an ancient Assyrian city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, just above its confluence with the Upper Zab River. It lies approximately 30km southeast of Mosul, in the north of modern Iraq. The ancient ruins cover an area of approximately 360 ha and reputedly supported a population of over 60,000. Calah was one of four major Assyrian royal cities in the region and can be considered to be in roughly the centre of the Assyrian homeland (Roaf, 1990).

The site consists of a roughly rectangular low mound surrounded by a city wall. Rising above the general level of the city are two major tells, the much taller of which is the acropolis (Tell Nimrud), where the ancient palaces and temples of the city have been uncovered through a series of major excavations. The second major tell is Tulul el-'Azar, otherwise known as Fort Shalmaneser. Tulul el-'Azar preserves the largest palace thus far excavated, a composite military and residential structure located in the southeast corner of the site.

The site was occupied from as early as the Halaf and Ubaid periods (5th Millennium B.C.). While evidence for continuous occupation of the site is apparent in the material remains, the site is only attested as a royal city beginning in the Middle Assyrian period (1300 B.C., +/-). Assur-Nasir-Pal II, a major ruler of the 9th Century described the former city of Calah (Kalhu) as a creation of Shalmaneser I (1271-1242 B.C.), noting that the city had fallen into decay and lay prostate when he became king (Mallowan, 1966: 74). The Middle Assyrian period was one of the rare times when the north of Iraq and the interior of Syria (Assyria in the classic sense) had been unified under one rule.

Assur-Nasir-Pal II again made Calah an important royal city, when he chose the city as the administrative capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (c. 883-612 BC). Under Assur-Nasir-Pal II (883-859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (858-824 BC), his son, the Assyrians exerted direct control to the west as far as the Euphrates. In 828 BC, the crown prince Assur-Danin-Apla, started a rebellion against the Shalmaneser III and attempted to wrest control of the city from Shalmaneser III. This rebellion pitted the royal court at Calah against the rest of Assyria. Eventually, the rebellion would be defeated by one of Shalmaneser III's younger sons, Shamsi-Adad V (823-811 BC), who used Calah as his base of operations. On the death of Shamshi-Adad V, his queen Sammuramat (Semiramis) would assume the regency and rule Assyria until her son Adad-Nirari III (810-783 BC) came of age. After Adad-Nirari III, there is no evidence of a strong monarch until Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727), who extended the empire from Assyria into Palestine and Damascus.

Thereafter the Neo-Assyrian Empire continued to grow. It would assume its greatest extent in the seventh century BC under Esarhaddon (680-669 BC) and his son Assur-Bani-Pal (669- c. 627 BC), when the empire controlled everything from Lower Egypt and the Levant in the southwest to the Northern and Central Zagros of Western Iran on the eastern frontier. In between, the Assyrian kings controlled southern Turkey, the Syrian Interior and all of Iraq including Babylonia and Chaldea. In 612 BC, the Assyrian Empire finally fell to the combined efforts of the Median and Babylonian armies and the acropolis was burnt to the ground.

After the fall of the Assyrian Empire and destruction of Calah., unknown Assyrians chose to try and re-establish the city by rebuilding some of its monuments.