Definition of addiction and the implication
By Atour of Assyria
?Addiction is defined by the psychologist Stanton Peele as a social experience that in and of itself could bring about dependency to a substance inn an otherwise well person.? (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p13).
?The term addiction derives from the Greek word addict, meaning bound or devoted, or bondage to a practice. Most compulsive addicts prefer a heterogeneous addiction, such as to the substance of choice. (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 3).
?When a person is addicted to something they cannot control how they use it, and become dependent on it to cope with daily life. A habit may eventually develop into an addition? (www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction).
Defining addiction at the turn of 21th century included a behavioural meaning. It defines it as referred to compulsive and loss of personal control, as well as, creating a dysfunctional life style. (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 4).
?Dependence was defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinical significant impairment?. (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 7). It is discernible, visible that a person with a high tolerance toward drugs is not easily pinned as addict by the society in general. While an addict person who is trying to get off from the practice of drugs faces tremendous withdrawal symptoms, and continued to be labeled an addict by society in general. However, the American Psychiatric Association refers to an addict person with problems relating to psychoactive drug use, described it as a need for medicalizing psychological behaviours treatment, and retitled the category to ?Addiction and Related Disorders?. (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 7).
Providing a definite definition of addiction, one must first distinguish and understand it, not from an abstract content and not from a grey area as it can shadow out its true characteristic or meaning, such as a person with a drug tolerance. People do define addict differently, where they define it as a person whom consume drugs in a large quantity at once, or a person whom takes a small amount of drugs daily in a habitual way, or consume drugs in a routine practice, or engage in excessive use without being effected mentally or physically. Yet, such various assumptions to the definition of addiction are not entirely complete.
The focus of attention needed to be on a look at reasons for why the high urgent need arises, when a person become unable to function normally without using psychoactive drug, or without consuming time and money for gambling practices, or in an activities that alter a normal behaviour from normality. Example: extensive internet use, shopping, and gambling.
Defining an addiction should not be based on assumption or believe, but rather on scientific experiment, measurable and repeated data, with focus on social element, that gives results of what it constitutes a normal behaviour.
Understanding this phenomena of addiction became described as a person out of control, disparate need to engage to the use of drugs, causing psychologically loss of personal control, and by self believe inability to function without engaging in taken a drug and / or perusing toward compulsive gambling and other activities.
Studies showed two factors influence person to become addict. The physiological factor, where body needed to function to a state of normality, and the psychological factor, where the mind depended on a drug to reach the stage of normal body stability, homeostasis.
Yet a better understanding the cause of addiction and the true definition of addiction, studies focused on stages a person go through into becoming an addict, such as with drug. The first stage is the initial stage where a contact with a substance occurs for a reason of experimentation, curiosity, peer pressure or medical. The second stage is the Integrate use, where a person starts using a drug in a casual or occasional. The third stage comes after Integrate stage toward Excessive use stage. Yet, in any stage, there is a choice a person may decide to stop taken drugs or stop engaging in a compulsive habit. However choice can be limited with various theoretical models. Furthermore, if a person continues in stage of excessive use, it will turn out to the final stage that is Addiction stage. Even at this stage, reversing backward in stages is possible, yet it is not easily achieved without progressive put forward in time, desire, motivation, goal and an urge to withstand withdrawal symptoms, physiological and psychologically. (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p 8).
Are we to define on addiction based on the stages above? This is not entirely well fit definition, as the stages don?t explain further the misuse and abuse. ?The misuse is referred to the periodic or occasional use such as prescription drug. The abuse is referred to the persistently consuming a substance that impair person?s well-being?. (. (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p 11).
This practice of using psychoactive drugs, or engaging in compulsive gambling, shopping, etc., lead to road of dependency. Dependency is more associated toward definition of addiction.
There are physical dependency and psychological dependency. The physical dependency is referred to deficiency to meet physiological stage of cellular adaptation, in order for a person to function normal. The psychological dependency is referred to believe or perception distorted by cognitive chemical imbalance for coping toward self urges. (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p 12).
Finally, addiction is defined according to Medilexicon?s medical dictionary: Addiction is habitual psychological or physiologic dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary control. Withdrawal has many meanings, one of which is psychological and /or physical syndrome caused by the abrupt cessation of the use of a drug in a habituated person.