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Addiction on durgs such as alcohol, nicotine in cigarette, and psychoactive

Burlington City

New member
Definition of addiction and the implication​

By Atour of Assyria

?Addiction is defined by the psychologist Stanton Peele as a social experience that in and of itself could bring about dependency to a substance inn an otherwise well person.?  (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p13).

?The term addiction derives from the Greek word addict, meaning bound or devoted, or bondage to a practice.  Most compulsive addicts prefer a heterogeneous addiction, such as to the substance of choice.  (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 3).
?When a person is addicted to something they cannot control how they use it, and become dependent on it to cope with daily life.  A habit may eventually develop into an addition?  (www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction).

Defining addiction at the turn of 21th century included a behavioural meaning.  It defines it as referred to compulsive and loss of personal control, as well as, creating a dysfunctional life style.  (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 4).

?Dependence was defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinical significant impairment?.  (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 7).  It is discernible, visible that a person with a high tolerance toward drugs is not easily pinned as addict by the society in general.  While an addict person who is trying to get off from the practice of drugs faces tremendous withdrawal symptoms, and continued to be labeled an addict by society in general.  However, the American Psychiatric Association refers to an addict person with problems relating to psychoactive drug use, described it as a need for medicalizing psychological behaviours treatment, and retitled the category to ?Addiction and Related Disorders?. (Rick Csiernik Substance Use and Abuse ? Everything Matters -2010, p 7).

Providing a definite definition of addiction, one must first distinguish and understand it, not from an abstract content and not from a grey area as it can shadow out its true characteristic or meaning, such as a person with a drug tolerance.  People do define addict differently, where they define it as a person whom consume drugs in a large quantity at once, or a person whom takes a  small amount of drugs daily in a habitual way, or consume drugs in a routine practice, or engage in excessive use without being effected mentally or physically.  Yet, such various assumptions to the definition of addiction are not entirely complete.

The focus of attention needed to be on a look at reasons for why the high urgent need arises, when a person become unable to function normally without using psychoactive drug, or without consuming time and money for gambling practices, or in an activities that alter a normal behaviour  from normality.  Example:  extensive internet use, shopping, and gambling.

Defining an addiction should not be based on assumption or believe, but rather on scientific experiment, measurable and repeated data, with focus on social element, that gives results of what it constitutes a normal behaviour.

Understanding this phenomena of addiction became described as a person out of control, disparate need to engage to the use of drugs, causing psychologically loss of personal control, and by self believe inability to function without engaging in taken a drug and / or perusing toward compulsive gambling and other activities.

Studies showed two factors influence person to become addict.  The physiological factor, where body needed to function to a state of normality, and the psychological factor, where the mind depended on a drug to reach the stage of normal body stability, homeostasis.

Yet a better understanding the cause of addiction and the true definition of addiction, studies focused on stages a person go through into becoming an addict, such as with drug.  The first stage is the initial stage where a contact with a substance occurs for a reason of experimentation, curiosity, peer pressure or medical.  The second stage is the Integrate use, where a person starts using a drug in a casual or occasional.  The third stage comes after Integrate stage toward Excessive use stage.  Yet, in any stage, there is a choice a person may decide to stop taken drugs or stop engaging in a compulsive habit.  However choice can be limited with various theoretical models.  Furthermore, if a person continues in stage of excessive use, it will turn out to the final stage that is Addiction stage.  Even at this stage, reversing backward in stages is possible, yet it is not easily achieved without progressive put forward in time, desire, motivation, goal and an urge to withstand withdrawal symptoms, physiological and psychologically.  (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p 8).

Are we to define on addiction based on the stages above?  This is not entirely well fit definition, as the stages don?t explain further the misuse and abuse.  ?The misuse is referred to the periodic or occasional use such as prescription drug.  The abuse is referred to the persistently consuming a substance that impair person?s well-being?.  (.  (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p 11).

This practice of using psychoactive drugs, or engaging in compulsive gambling, shopping, etc., lead to road of dependency.  Dependency is more associated toward definition of addiction. 

There are physical dependency and psychological dependency.  The physical dependency is referred to deficiency to meet physiological stage of cellular adaptation, in order for a person to function normal.  The psychological dependency is referred to believe or perception distorted by cognitive chemical imbalance for coping toward self urges.  (Rick Csiernik and William Rowee, 2nd edition, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, p 12).

Finally, addiction is defined according to Medilexicon?s  medical dictionary:  Addiction is habitual psychological or physiologic dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary control.  Withdrawal has many meanings, one of which is psychological and /or physical syndrome caused by the abrupt cessation of the use of a drug in a habituated person.


Burlington City

New member
The Hidden face of Oppression​

By Atour of Assyria

Addiction is defined as a bio-psycho-social phenomenon, while other underlying them was that addiction creates oppression among drug users and those addicted to drugs (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010).    Responding to the oppression of addiction and how addiction creates oppression and what should be done, are the focus of this paper, that looks at family, sexuality and Native People.  Understanding the meaning of oppression helps to further our knowledge in recognizing it, and allows us to seek a solution and an exit strategy.  Oppression is defined: The feeling of being heavily burdened, mentally or physically, by troubles, adverse condition, anxiety, etc., or the exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner (www.dictionary.org).  Oppression is carried out by institutional or by systematic such as by Anarchists, racism, sexism, and other prejudices (Wikipedia.org).  Addicted person, on psychoactive drugs, experiences common ground in similarity to those whom destabilize family homeostasis, or become sexuality victimized, or sense of ethnic oppression as in a case of Native Indian.  Addict loved family member causes element of miseries, pains and suicidal tendencies for his family and parent.  While oppressors find sexual exploitation, and misuse in children and vulnerable people have been achievable by inducing addicted behaviour to pave for sexual assault, and prostitution.  Native people lost their touch with the own Creator, to mention at least, and became consumed by alcohols and other drugs and suicidal tendencies. 

Addiction on a family member is a route for a dysfunctional and a destructive on whole family.  Family experiencing their loved one, inflicted by an addicted poisoning behaviour, such as alcohol, nicotine and illicit psychoactive agents, faces a serious family relationship collapse, and a high sign of family stressor that requires an urgent need to have an open sincere talk about addiction, along with outreach for help from addiction treatment centres exploring them with an open mind for positive solutions (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p133). 

Children of alcoholic parent faced higher probability for alcohol dependence, that causes poor cognitive ability to function successful in school (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p134), along with social difficulties, as poorer peer relationships and poorer success in moving forward in their goals and careers (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p134). 

Alcohol abuse among parent brings instability to family, sanctuary, and success in life.  Children sense and live various hardships as alcohol abuse by parent becomes a routine in children life, encompasses anger, violence, economic deprivation, and neglect (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p134). 

The much-needed help in recovery should not be only focused on an addict person, but it is essentially vital to have whole family involved and interact, learn and give support.  Attending an addiction treatment as a family group will bring a healthy recovery that focuses on learning to bring in harm avoidance, harm reduction, and relapse prevention (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p133, 134). 

Media news outlet broadcast stories about victims, where drugs have been used intensively in children, and vulnerable people for the purpose of sexual assault and prostitution.    Date-rape pill induces loss of memory, used by predator for sexual assault purposes.  The drug name echoed on radios and various media news outlets to be aware of from who they are getting their drink from.  The Date-rape drug pill is put in a drink without knowledge of a person consuming it.  The drug pill does not have a taste, a color, or a smell.    Others psychoactive drugs use for sexual assaults such as cocaine and cryst meth have direct association with sexual aggression, while alcohol and hallucinogenic drugs such as heroin have been used on people to direct them for prostitution (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p158). 

The exploitation is of forlorn children, those lonely, lost, deserted and abandoned, intimidated to use drugs, resulted the soul of children sold their virtue for a nickel or quarter, which is nothing short of cruel and horribly tragic (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010,151)  (Jane Addams 1912). 

No doubt we know that hormone levels, such as Dopamine, the neurotransmitter, increase after inducing drugs, such as alcohol or ecstasy, in the blood come together (converge) to increase excitation for sexual drive (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p152).  While the use of alcohol in North American culture became normalized and accepted as a social activity, without realizing its causes compulsive sexual behaviour (Carves, 2009), (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p152).    The person under influence of cocaine become talkative without regards for negative self-talk as an intake of cocaine increases. (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p133).

The need to counter drug use is to employ a defence mechanism.  This defence mechanism should include a person?s self-assessment and self-protection by substituting negative thoughts of addiction, undesired intimacy, and sexual expression, that coincided with power control and coercion, by activities such as the practice of meditation, writing, reading or behavioural normal conduct (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p155).    The other defence mechanism is to seek help from social worker whom specialized in addiction education, to gain valuable consultation, emphasizing normalization, undertake to sex, relationship and substance abuse.  (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p159).

Addiction to alcohol and other drugs flourished on North America Native Land by the European arrival.  The First Nation, known also as Native Indian was not
exposed to drugs for thousands of years.  The European introduced alcohol to Native people, followed by indoctrinating European Catholicism believe, along with ill-treatment, and disease that they brought from Europe (chicken pox) devastated population, unity, identity, and cultural values of the Native Indian.
Oppression acts on Native people were initiated by imposing the European Catholicism religious believe upon Native people, without realizing Natives? spiritual values, their customs, their governing system that been based around a circle that its cycle completion need not to be cut or interrupted.  However, the European thought that Native Indian as a lost people with no government to govern them, with no faith to save them from hell, where any conflicting religious path from Catholicism was sacrilegious. (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p201).

Furthermore, along with force Catholicism believes, oppression continued with heinous assimilation process imposed by government of Canada by process that instituted the Residential School System upon native Indian children where children taken away from parents by force (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p264).  The religious and political oppression caused an added oppression toward inner Native bitterness whom were deprived to be with their parents, deprived to learn their languages, and their own cultures, in which many found themselves confused, hopeless, depressed and angry, driven many of them toward committed suicide, and many more found the use of alcohol and other drugs to medicate themselves, as a mean to forget and numb their pain, without realizing negative side effects.  The consumption of alcohol by pregnant women created a fetal alcohol syndrome, and the children may have a life time of having cognitive and psychological difficulties compared to non-addictive children.  (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p265).

The coping mechanism of Native Indians to help their own people were removed by European, in which it shattered Native?s unity, and many felt that life became meaningless to their life as they lost the contact with their own Creator, and with their own Natives? Circle of unity.  The European oppression imposed upon Natives to a degree of degrading Natives? self-esteemed, forced assimilation, loss of their languages and traditions gives us a historical account of how addiction became prominent among many Native Indians.

After forced assimilation on Natives people, they found themselves stripped of their identity, along experiencing addiction, poverty, unemployment, violence, mental illness, illiteracy, and were classified as second class people.  There has been no essay quick fix to what horror the native endured by European colonization over centuries.  Many Native people assumed solution by the use of alcohol and other drugs, but were driven further to a stage of suicide rate and premature death.

Getting help to stop drugs? oppression requires genuine commitment by an addict person, and support from family members, and even community.  We have seen a good awareness by the society, and government for the need to establish treatment centres focused on Native values and traditions, to address chemical dependency, abuse, low self-esteem and prevention relapse.  The much help needed for an addict have been to help them not to destroy, his or her body, hopes, dreams, wishes, relationships, careers and opportunities.    Help is needed to address the need to rid clients of all excuses they used for why they continue drinking alcohol or using other drugs.  No doubt, forgiveness is a powerful weapon that a person can use to gain help, and increase positive thinking in order to set himself/herself free (Csiernik, Rowe, 2010, p267).

Addiction is a self-made oppression rooted to bio-psycho-social components.  An addict person sees the burden of hardship fell upon him/her without realizing self-inflicting harm on self, and family.  It is never too late for an addict person to seek help in recovery process.  This was clearly visible in our Addiction Education Diploma courses, at the McMaster University, where fifty percent of students were ex-addict.  Help should include family involvement for an affective recovery that helps in reducing or stopping replase.  An addict person is a victim, a sick person like any normal sick person in hospital, and should be treated with utmost respect, understanding, and love.  Oppressors pray on criminal opportunities.  Oppressors pray on innocent families, on sexual exploitation young people for prostitution, and on oppressed Native Indian. The need to seek help must not stop for an addict person.  Family members needed help to elevate the harm that inflicted on them due to their love one?s addiction.  We all need to be aware of what we consume, and from whom we get our consumption, as well as, we need to be open minded to discuss the issue of Addiction as a disease without blaming innocent addicted person.


Rick Csiernik, William Rowe, Responding to the Oppression of Addiction, 2nd Edition, 2010.